Goods are a resource, consisting of valuable objects and materials, measured in how many cows they can buy. In general, goods act as a substitute for herds in cases where you would rather not spend the latter, such as sacrifices and trade. They are also used to construct temples and fortifications. Unlike cows, goods do not reproduce on their own, do not supply you with food, and cannot be butchered for emergency food. However, they are much easier to produce and acquire.
Your clan produces some amount of goods automatically every turn, and the amount they produce can be increased using Nyalda's Crafting blessing. In addition, it is possible to generate more goods by establishing trade routes with other clans. As you establish more trade routes, you will increase the frequency of your market days, which in turn will cause you to gain goods faster. Ekarna's Market blessing will further increase the rate at which you gain goods from trade. You can also often gain goods through exploration, as an additional bonus for a trade mission, and as plunder after a raid.